favorite We need a little bit of your help to keep things running, click on this banner to learn more

2019 USACO January

Train Tracking 2

Every day the express train goes past the farm. It has n carriages, each with a positive integer label between 1 and 109, different carriages may have the same label.

Usually, Bessie watches the train go by, tracking the carriage labels. But today is too foggy, and Bessie can't see any of the labels! Luckily, she has acquired the sliding window minimums of the sequence of carriage labels, from a reputable source in the city. In particular, she has a positive integer k, and nk + 1 positive integers c1,..., cn + 1k, where ci is the minimum label among carriages i, i + 1,..., i + k1.

Help Bessie figure out the number of ways to assign a label to each carriage, consistent with the sliding window minimums. Since this number may be very large, Bessie will be satisfied if you find its remainder modulo 109 + 7.

Bessie's information is completely reliable; that is, it is guaranteed that there is at least one consistent way to assign labels.


The first line consists of two space-separated integers n (1n105) and k. The subsequent lines contain the sliding window minimums c1, ..., cn + 1k, one per line.


Print a single integer: the number of ways, modulo 109 + 7, to assign a positive integer not exceeding 109 to each carriage, such that the minimum label among carriages i, i + 1, ..., i + k1 is ci for each 1ink + 1.

Time limit 1 second
Memory limit 128 MiB
Input example #1
4 2
Output example #1
Source 2019 USACO January, Platinum