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Problems

Shagrath

Shagrath

Indeed, the army of the Dark Lord Sauron is countless - it contains n orcs! (according to some sources it equals to 10100). However, not so long ago there was an annoying case of desertion - one of the orcs, whose name is Shagrath, decided that it was time to retire. He went away to the west of Middle-earth, got there a little garden and began to cultivate leeks. It would be interesting to know how many orcs in the Army now.

Input

The initial amount of orcs in the army n (1n10100).

Output

Print the number of orcs in the army after Shagrath's departure.

Time limit 1 second
Memory limit 128 MiB
Input example #1
1
Output example #1
0
Input example #2
2
Output example #2
1